मंगलवार, 7 जून 2011

Chronology of Natural Disasters in Himalayas

Disasters in central Himalaya

History & Chronology of natural disaster

Photos & Report by Rajen Todariya

It was a natural disaster which formed the most beautiful mountain system of the world out of a sea . Himalaya is a result of restlessness of Earth . Human settlements and civilization continuously got hit by the geological restlessness of Himalaya. Nobody knows how many times it had happened But human society never gave up. Every time human civilization succeeded to overcome from the burying grounds of natural disaster like a phoenix . Script of green fields and architecture is written by the human courage and indomitable sprit of struggle. History of natural disaster in Himalayas is as old as Himalaya itself but records of natural disaster in central Himalaya are available from the year 1720.

01 - Earthquake of magnitude 10, epi centre was Delhi on 15 July 1720

02 - Earthquake of magnitude 9, epi centre was Badarinath on 01 September 1803

03 - Earthquake of magnitude 9, epi centre was Garhwal in year 1809

04 - Earthquake of magnitude 7, epi centre was Gagotri on 26 May 1816

05 - Earthquake of magnitude 7, epi centre was Delhi on 24 oct. 1831

06 - Earthquake of magnitude 6 , epi centre was Shimla on 05 March 1842

07 - Earthquake of magnitude 6 , epi centre was Delhi on 24 July 1842

08 - Earthquake of magnitude 5 , epi centre was Mussoorie on 07 Sept 1842 .

09 - Earthquake of magnitude 6 , epi centre was Delhi on 26 Sept 1842

10 - Earthquake of mag. 6 , epi centre was Landour (Mussoorie) 11 April 1843 .

11 - Earthquake of magnitude 6 , epi centre was Meerut on 31 March 1852 .

12- Earthquake of magnitude 8, epi centre was Shimla on 11 August 1858 .

13 - Earthquake of magnitude 6 , epi centre was Shimla on 11 April 1865 .

14 - Earthquake of magnitude 6 , epi centre was Nainital on 25 July 1869 .

15 - Earthquake of mag. 6 , epi centre was Landour (Mussoorie ) on 22 May 1871.

16- Earthquake of magnitude 6 , epi centre was Shimla on 2 March 1878 .

17- Earthquake of magnitude 6.5 , epi centre was Sirmour (HP) on Sept 1903. It has hit upper Ganga, Sirmour and Garhwal region.

18- Earthquake of magnitude 8 , epi centre was Bajang on 26 Feb 1906 .

19- Earthquake of magnitude 7.5 , epi centre was Dharchula,Pithoragarh on 28 Oct 1916 .

20- Earthquake of magnitude 6.7, epi centre was near Khurja on10 Oct. 1956 .

21- Earthquake of magnitude 7.5 , epi centre was Bajana on 28 Dec 1958 .

22- Earthquake of magnitude 5.1, epi centre was near Delhi on 27 Aug 1960 .

23 - Earthquake of magnitude 6.3 , epi centre was Kapkot,Bageshwar on 27 July 1966 .

24- Earthquake of magnitude 5.6 , epi centre was Moradabad on 15 Aug 1966.

25 - Earthquake of magnitude 7.0 , epi centre was Dharchula, Pithoragarh on 28 Aug 1968 .

26 - Earthquake of magnitude 6.8, epi centre was near Kinnaur ( HP ) on 19 Jan. 1975 .

27- Earthquake of magnitude 5.3, epi centre was Kinnaur (H.P ) on 19 July 1975.

28- Earthquake of magnitude 6.5, epi centre was near Seraghat on 21 May 1979.

29- Earthquake of magnitude 6.5, epi centre was Dharchula, Pithoragarh on 29 July 1980.

30- Earthquake of magnitude 6.1, epi centre was Uttarkashi on 20 Oct 1991.

31- Earthquake of magnitude 6.0, epi centre was Chamoli on 28 March 1999
Earthquake that changed the historyTerrible tales of tearsIt was beginning of new century; mankind was entering in a new phase. A new dawn was knocking the doors of history. Human civilization was entering from the dark days of 18th century to a brighter tomorrow of 19th century. But Garhwal was not so fortunate; the darkest days of history were ahead. It was dark and terrible night of 01 September 1803, people of Garhwal were in a sound sleep, and suddenly an earthquake of 8 at richer scale shaken badly the whole Garhwal from Badrinath to Gangotri . Himalaya was trembling in anger. Thousands of people buried in their houses within a moment. Helpless people were crying in fear and terror but nobody to help or save them. Although historians are silent over the total number of deaths in this earthquake but it is believed that over 50 to 60 percent of Garhwal was destroyed by the earthquake. It was worst disaster of the known history of the natural calamities. The sad morning of 02 Sept 1803 was the most unfortunate morning in the history of Garhwal. Death was lying everywhere. Lively villages had turned in to burying grounds. Hundreds of families were destroyed completely. Nobody was left behind even for the cremation. Asiatic researches,history and antiquities, the arts,science, ethnology and literature of Asia gives the details of impact of 1803 earthquake on various towns of Garhwal . Although these travel notes based on the facts collected 4 or 5 years after earthquake. Despite of this, it is only description of available in the history. Shrinagar was capital of Garhwal . Earthquake destroyed it completely . Travel notes in Asiatic researches state, ‘Every home appears to have felt the shock, in the main street not above one in five is inhabited , of some , the roofs have fallen in, of others walls are rent asunder , and many lie a complete heap of ruins .’ Travel notes states that Devprayag was terribly shaken by this earthquake . Most of the houses were destroyed .Intensity of earthquake was so high that terrace and cupola of RaghuNath Mandir suffered material injury. These notes are silent about the number of deaths in Devprayag but it is said that death toll was above hundred . The dreadful destruction was not confined to Alaknanda valley but Bhagirathi valley was also badly shaken by it . Describing the story of destruction in Uttarkashi Travel notes states , ‘ The town of Barahat ( Uttarkashi )by no means answered the expectation we had formed of it, being in extent and population, far inferior to many villages we have passed on the road. The houses, like those of all the villages in this part of the country , are built of large stones with slated roofs , but none of them appear in a habitable state. One cause, however, of its present dismantled condition, proceeds from the injury it sustained from the earthquake of 1803 , in which all the houses suffered materially and some were completely buried in the ground . It is said that two or three hundreds people were killed by the falling of the roofs and great numbers of cattle were destroyed on the fatal occasion ’ Although it was a brief description but enough to unearth the stories of disaster caused by the earthquake .
It was said that almost every village was sinking in ocean of tears and each person had unforgettable wounds .Wounds were so deep that terrible tale of disaster remained alive even after 300 years and travelled from 18th to the 20th Century. Earthquake was so disastrous that it changed the history of Garhwal. It had written the script of slavery. It was 1804, after a year of this terrible earthquake, Gorkhas of Nepal attacked Garhwal. Garhwal, which was badly hit by the disaster, could not defend itself from this attack. King of Garhwal lost the battle to Gorkhas. It was not merely an incident of change in monarchy but beginning of the darkest era of history. Thousands of Garhwali killed and women were raped by barbaric Gorkha army. They not only looted earthquake ruined people but made them slaves .These bond slaves, bonded by iron chains, had been sold by Gorkhas in 15 or 20 rupees . Lakhs of Garhwalis were sold like goats and sheep. More than 2 lakhs Garhwali slaves were sold by Gorakhas in Haridwar. Majority of slaves either women or innocent girls . Savage Gorkhas ruled Garhwal for 12 years but these few years were larger than the centuries and darkest years of Uttrakhand . Evidence of oral history proved that Gorkha army was more cruel, inhumane and barbaric than Mangol invader Changez Khan and other Mughal invaders like Tamoor, who were born centuries before .

Chronology of Flood and Landslides in Central Himalaya01- Year 1868 – a huge landslide blocked the tributary of Birahi River.It made a artificial lake. Suddenly lake burst and flood claimed the lives of 75 people. Birahi river meets Alaknanda near Pipalkoti in Chamoli district of Uttrakhand .
02 - 19 Sept.1880-Massive landslides in Nainital claimed 151 lives, out of them 42 were British.
03 - Year 1880 – A Terrible flood in Sharada River buried Brahmpur town. Township of Tanakpur was settled later.
04 - September 1893 - A massive landslide blocked Birahi River and a artificial lake, ‘ Gauna Tal ’ was formed .
05- 5 August 1894 – Gauna Tal was broken down and 40 thousands million cubic meter water washed away Chamoli, Karnprayag, Rudraprayag , Shrinagar, then capital of Garhwal state, lower part of Deoprayag.
06 - 7 August 1898 – 29 killed in a massive landslide in Kailakhan area of Nainital .
07 - 1937 – Huge landslide in Garbyang village of Pithoragarh district killed many people .
08 - 1945 – Landslide in different villages of Madmaheshwar valley, Rudraprayag district cost 4 lives and ruined many houses .
09 - August 1951 – heavy rainfall and cloud burst made Nayaar river to overflow . It was biggest flood in the River which washed away 20 buses along with more than 100 passengers . A folk song of that tragedy still makes people in to tears . This song tells a sad story of a rich man of that time Goverdhan Das resident of Shivanandi village.
10- 1962 – Mandakini river was blocked by a huge land mass for many days . when this artificial dam burst it caused disaster in whole Madmaheshwar and Mandakini valley. Many people killed in this flood . this was the worst flood in the Madmaheshwar and Mandakini valley.
11- 08 September 1967 – Nanak Sagar dam was broken down due to heavy and continuous rain . 35 villages washed away and 80 people were died but it is told that actual death toll was more than one thousand .
12 – 20 July 1970 – A massive landslide in the catchment area of again overflowed Birahi river after 76 years . huge water mass of Birahi blocked the flow of Alaknanda in dark and rainy night of 20th July at Belakuchi . Belakuchi urban settlement washed away along with several busses, pilgrims and local people. over 70 people killed in this flash flood.
13- 19 July 1971 – Cloud burst killed 12 people and burried 35 houses in Dobata village of Pithoragarh district .
14 – 1976 – Flash flood due to cloud burst killed 11 residents of Baghar village in Kafkot block of Bageshwar district .
15 –14 Aug 1977 – A massive landslide in Tawaghat of Pithoragarh district killed 15 people .
16- August 1977- 44 people including 25 soldiers of ITBP were killed in Tawaghat and its surrounding villages due to heavy rains during 16 to 24 August .
17- 14 Aug 1978 – 4 people killed in a landslide in Rikhari village of Bageshwar district .
18- 1978 – A massive landslide blocked Bhagirathi in Gangnani . 25 people were killed by the flash flood in Bhagirathi .
19- 1979 – A massive landslide destroyed almost the whole Kontha village of Mandakini valley in Chamoli district . 50 residents killed in this calamity .
20 – 23 June 1980 – A landslide in Gyansu village near Uttarkashi left behind 45 people dead .
21 – 9 September 1980 – 15 government officials died in a landslide on Uttarkashi – Gangotri highway near Kanodiya gaad.
22- 1983 –several houses of Karmi village in Kafkot block of Bageshwar district washed away due to Cloud burst. 37 people killed in this natural calamity .
23 – 1984 – Flash flood and landslide killed 9 people in Jagthana & Kanyalikot villages of Kafkot block .
24 – 1990 – More than 100 pilgrims died due to heavy landslide in Neelkanth Mahadev root near Laxmanjhula, Rishikesh.
25 –16 August 1991 – heavy rains due to cloud burst caused several incidents of landslides in Deor khadura, Paduli , Koj , Pepalkoti and Gopeshwar in which 29 people killed .
26- July 1996 – A incident of cloud burst at Raintoli village in Pithoragarh killed 16 villagers .
27 – 11 August 1998 – More than a dozen villages of Ukhimath region of Rudraprayag district badly hit by Cloud burst. A whole village was buried in a unprecedented landslide .109 people were killed .
28- 17 August 1998 – Massive landslide on the root of Kailash- Mansarovar buried 169 pilgrims.
29 – 27 July 2001 – Flashflood induced by a cloud burst killed 5 people in Khetgaon near Dharchula, Pithoragarh .
30 – 10 August 2002 – 29 people died due to different incidents of landslides in the villages of Balganga valley in Tehri Garhwal district .
31 – 2009 - More than 70 people died in separate incidents of landslides, flashflood all over Uttrakhand .

1 टिप्पणी:

  1. The cruelty of gorkha's army on the earth quack hitted garhwali people was so barbaric than taimur and changej khan that you can't say that nepalies are a gentleman race .Actually only few kyshtriya or brahmins are there and rest are of mangolian breed.You cant say nepal is a hindhu country.In the meat market you can see the open head of buffalow meat which you have not seen in indian meat market

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